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Below is a list of allowable vocational rehabilitation services under the federal VR Program. This list is provided to help clients and potential clients better understand the VR program and its processes. In order for a service to be provided, it must be reasonable and necessary for the client to achieve their vocational goal and included in their Individual Plan for Employment (IPE). Clients and counselors work together to create this plan.

pre-employment transition services (for eligible students with a disability ages 14–21)

(i) Job exploration counseling;
(ii) Work-based learning experiences, which may include in-school or after school opportunities, or experience outside the traditional school setting (including internships), that is provided in an integrated environment in the community to the maximum extent possible;
(iii) Counseling on opportunities for enrollment in comprehensive transition or postsecondary educational programs at institutions of higher education;
(iv) Workplace readiness training to develop social skills and independent living; and
(v) Instruction in self-advocacy (including instruction in person-centered planning), which may include peer mentoring (including peer mentoring from individuals with disabilities working in competitive integrated employment).

Vocational Rehabilitation Services

Graduate College or University Training

Full-time or part-time academic training leading to a degree recognized as beyond a Baccalaureate Degree, such as a Master of Science, Arts (M.S. or M.A.) or Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) or Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D.). Such training would be provided by a college or university.

Four-Year College or University Training

Full-time or part-time academic training leading to a baccalaureate degree, a certificate, or other recognized educational credential. Such training may be provided by a four-year college or university or technical college.

Junior or Community College Training

Full-time or part-time academic training above the secondary school level leading to an Associate’s Degree, a certificate, or other recognized educational credential. Such training may be provided by a community college, junior college, or technical college.

Occupational or Vocational Training

Occupational, vocational, or job skill training provided by a community college and/or business, vocational/trade or technical school to prepare students for gainful employment in a recognized occupation, not leading to an academic degree. This would include selected courses or programs of study at a community college, four-year college, university, technical college or proprietary school or program.

On The Job Training

Training in specific job skills by a prospective employer. Generally, the trainee is paid during this training and will remain in the same or a similar job upon successful completion.

Registered Apprenticeship Training

A work-based employment and training program that combines hands-on, on-the-job work experience in a skilled occupation with related classroom instruction. Structured apprenticeship programs generally have minimum requirements for the duration of on-the job work experience and classroom instruction, and/or could utilize competency-based elements but should have mechanisms in place to ensure quality and consistency of skills acquisition. The following elements distinguish apprenticeship programs from other work-based efforts including co-op education, on-the-job training, and internships: supervision and structured mentoring; providing for wage increases as an apprentice’s skills increase; based on an employer-employee relationship; and providing an industry recognized certificate of completion of the program.

Remedial or Literacy Training

Literacy training or training provided to remediate basic academic skills that are needed to function on the job in the competitive labor market.

Job Readiness Training

Training provided to prepare an individual for work (e.g., work behaviors, getting to work on time, dress and grooming, increasing productivity, etc.).

Disability Related Skills Training

Disability-related augmentative skills training includes but is not limited to: orientation and mobility; rehabilitation teaching; training in the use of low vision aids; Braille; speech reading; sign language; and cognitive training/retraining.

Miscellaneous Training

Any training not recorded in one of the other categories listed, including GED or secondary school training leading to a diploma, or courses taken at four-year, junior or community colleges not leading to a certificate or diploma.

Randolph-Sheppard Entrepreneurial Training

Training for establishing a small business or individualized training through Randolph-Sheppard program and identified on an IPE.

Customized Training

A training program designed to meet the special requirements of an employer who has entered into an agreement with a service delivery area to hire individuals who are trained to the employer’s specifications. The training may occur at the employer’s site or provided by a training vender able to meet the employer’s requirements. Such training usually requires a commitment from the employer to hire a specified number of trainees who satisfactorily complete the training.


Assessment means services provided and activities performed to determine an individual’s eligibility for VR services, to assign an individual to a priority category of a VR program that operates under an order of selection, and/or to determine the nature and scope of VR services to be included in the IPE. It also includes trial work experiences. Assessments to determine eligibility, assignment of a priority category or the nature or scope of services to be included on the IPE include, but are not limited to psychological assessments, audio logical evaluations, dental and medical exams and other assessments of personality, interests, interpersonal skills, intelligence and related functional capacities, educational achievements, work experience, vocational aptitudes, personal and social adjustments, and employment opportunities of the individual and the medical, psychiatric, psychological, and other pertinent vocational, educational, cultural, social, recreational, and environmental factors that affect the employment and rehabilitation needs of the individual.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Impairments

Diagnosis and treatment of impairments includes:
a) Corrective surgery or therapeutic treatment that is likely, within a reasonable period of time, to correct or modify substantially a physical or mental impairment that constitutes a substantial impediment to employment;
b) Diagnosis and treatment for mental and emotional disorders by qualified personnel who meet State licensure laws;
c) Dentistry:
d) Nursing services;
e) Necessary hospitalization (either inpatient or outpatient care) in connection with surgery or treatment;
f) Drugs and supplies;
g) Prescription of prosthetics and/or orthotics related to the individual’s diagnosed disability and is necessary for the achievement of the employment outcome;
h) Prescription of eyeglasses and visual services, including visual training, related to the individual’s diagnosed disability and necessary for the achievement of the employment outcome;
i) Podiatry;
j) Physical therapy;
k) Occupational therapy;
l) Speech or hearing therapy;
m) Mental health services;
n) Treatment of either acute or chronic medical complications and emergencies that are associated with or arise out of the provision of physical and mental restoration services or that are inherent in the condition under treatment (34 CFR 365.1(c)(39));
o) Special services for the treatment of individuals with end-stage renal disease, including transplantation, dialysis, artificial kidneys, and supplies;
p) Other medical or medically related rehabilitation services; and
q) Medical care for acute conditions arising during rehabilitation and constituting a barrier to the achievement of an employment outcome.

Vocational Rehabilitation Counseling and Guidance

Vocational rehabilitation counseling and guidance includes information and support services to assist an individual in exercising informed choice and is distinct from the case management relationship that exists between the counselor and the individual during the VR process.

Job Search Assistance

Job search activities support and assist an individual in searching for an appropriate job. Job search assistance may include help in resume preparation, identifying appropriate job opportunities, developing interview skills, and making contacts with companies on behalf of the consumer.

Job Placement Assistance

Job placement assistance is a referral to a specific job resulting in an interview, regardless of whether or not the individual obtained the job.

Short Term Job Supports

Support services provided to an individual who has been placed in employment in order to stabilize the placement and enhance job retention. Such services include short-term job coaching for persons who do not have a supported employment goal consistent with the employment goal on the IPE.

Supported Employment Services

Supported employment services (34 CFR 361.5(c)(54)) means ongoing support services, including customized employment, and other appropriate services needed to support and maintain an individual with a most significant disability, including a youth with a most significant disability in supported employment that are
(i) Organized and made available, singly or in combination, in such a way as to assist an eligible individual to achieve competitive integrated employment;

(ii) Based on a determination of the needs of an eligible individual, as specified in an individualized plan for employment; (

iii) Provided by the designated State unit for a period of time not to exceed 24 months, unless under special circumstances the eligible individual and the rehabilitation counselor jointly agree to extend the time to achieve the employment outcome identified in the individualized plan for employment; and

(iv) Following transition, as post-employment services that are unavailable from an extended services provider and that are necessary to maintain or regain the job placement or advance in employment.

Information and Referral Services

Information and referral services are provided to individuals who need services from other agencies (e.g., cooperative agreements).

Benefits Counseling

Assistance provided to an individual who is interested in becoming employed, but is uncertain of the impact work income may have on any disability benefits and entitlements being received, and/or is not aware of benefits, such as access to healthcare, that might be available to support employment efforts. This typically involves an analysis of an individual’s current benefits, such as SSDI and SSI, the individual’s financial situation, and the effect different income levels from work will have on the individual’s future financial situation. This assistance is intended to provide the individual an opportunity to make an informed choice regarding the pursuit of employment.
Ongoing assistance may also be provided as the individual decides on employment goals, searches for jobs, and becomes employed.

Customized Employment Services

Customized employment (34 CFR 361.5(c)(11)) means competitive integrated employment for an individual with a significant disability that is - based on an individualized determination of the unique strengths, needs, and interests of the individual with a significant disability; designed to meet the specific abilities of the individual with a significant disability and the business needs of the employer; and carried out through flexible strategies. Flexible strategies include job exploration by the individual and working with an employer to facilitate placement, including:

a) customizing a job description based on current employer needs or on previously unidentified and unmet employer needs;

b) developing a set of job duties, a work schedule and job arrangement, and specifics of supervision (including performance evaluation and review), and determining a job location;

c) using a professional representative chosen by the individual, or if elected self-representation, to work with an employer to facilitate placement; and

d) providing services and supports at the job location.

Extended Services

Extended services (34 CFR 361.5(c)(19)) are ongoing support services and other appropriate services that are needed to support and maintain an individual with a most significant disability including a youth with a most significant disability, in supported employment. See 34 CFR 361.5(c)(19) for the complete definition. Agencies are to only report data for youth who have achieved a supported employment outcome and are receiving extended services provided with VR and/or SE funds for a period not to exceed four years. The service records for these individuals remain open until these services are terminated. VR agencies are not to report data for individuals, including youth, who have achieved a supported employment outcome and are receiving extended services provided through other sources following record closure.
This data element tracks extended services provided only by the VR agency or through VR agency purchase; therefore, the comparable services and benefits data elements are not included.


Transportation (34 CFR 361.5(c)(56)) means travel and related expenses that are necessary to enable an applicant or eligible individual to participate in a VR service, including expenses for training in the use of public transportation vehicles and systems. Examples of transportation services include, but are not limited to:

a) travel and related expenses for a personal care attendant or aide if the services of that person are necessary to enable the applicant or eligible individual to travel to participate in any vocational rehabilitation service;

b) purchase and repair of vehicles, including vans, but not the modification of these vehicles as modification would be considered a rehabilitation technology service;

c) relocation expenses incurred by an eligible individual in connection with a job placement that is a significant distance from the eligible individual’s current residence; or

d) purchase of a bus pass for an individual to get to training or work.
This specifically excludes the modification of vehicles, which is to be reported in rehabilitation technology. If a vehicle is purchased with modifications, the pro-rata cost of the vehicle is reported here and the pro-rata cost of the modifications will be reported in Rehabilitation Technology.


Maintenance (34 CFR 361.5(c)(34)) means monetary support provided for expenses such as food, shelter and clothing that are in excess of the normal expenses of the individual, and that are necessitated by the individual’s participation in an assessment for determining eligibility and VR needs or while receiving services under an IPE. Examples of maintenance expenses include, but are not limited to:

a) cost of uniforms or other suitable clothing required for an individual’s job placement or job seeking activities;

b) cost of short-term expenses, such as food and shelter, that is required in order for an individual to participate in assessment or vocational training at a site that is not within commuting distance of an individual’s home;

c) cost of food and lodging expenses while an individual is participating in four-year or graduate college or university;

d) initial one-time costs, such as security deposits or charges for the initiation of utilities, that are required in order for an individual to relocate for a job placement; and

e) cost of an individual’s participation in enrichment activities related to that individual’s training program.

Rehabilitation Technology

Rehabilitation technology (34 CFR 361.5(c)(45)) means the systematic application of technologies, engineering methodologies, or scientific principles to meet the needs of, and address the barriers confronted by, individuals with disabilities in areas that include education, rehabilitation, employment, transportation, independent living, recreation, home and vehicular modification, other assistive devices including, but not limited to hearing aids, low vision aids and wheelchairs. This includes the hardware portion of neuroprosthetic devices, such as cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, and motor prosthetic devices, but does not include medical and surgical procedures required for implantation of neuroprosthetic devices which should be coded as diagnosis and treatment of impairments. Rehabilitation technology includes rehabilitation engineering, assistive technology devices, and assistive technology services. The term includes the following:

a) Rehabilitation Engineering Services are the systematic application of engineering sciences to design, develop, test, evaluate, apply, and distribute technological solutions to problems confronted by VR individuals in functional areas such as mobility, communications, hearing, vision, and cognition, and in activities associated with employment, independent living, education, and integration into the community.

b) Assistive Technology Devices are any items, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a VR customer.

c) Assistive Technology Services (34 CFR 361.5(c)(6)) are any services that directly assist an individual with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. Services may include:
1. the evaluation of the needs of an individual, including a functional evaluation of the individual in his/her customary environment;
2. purchasing, leasing, or otherwise providing for the acquisition by an individual of an assistive technology device;
3. selecting, designing, fitting, customizing, adapting, applying, maintaining, repairing, or replacing assistive technology devices;
4. coordinating and using other therapies, interventions, or services with assistive technology devices, such as those associated with existing education and rehabilitation plans and programs;
5. training or providing technical assistance for an individual or, if appropriate, the family members, guardians, advocates, or authorized representatives of the individual; and
6. training or providing technical assistance for professionals (including individuals providing education and rehabilitation services), employers, or others who provide services to, employ, or are otherwise substantially involved in the major life functions of individuals with disabilities, to the extent that training or technical assistance is necessary to the achievement of an employment outcome.

Personal Assistance Services

Personal assistance services (34 CFR 361.5(c)(38)) means a range of services, including, among other things, training in managing, supervising, and directing personal assistance services, provided by one or more persons, that are:
(i) Designed to assist an individual with a disability to perform daily living activities on or off the job that the individual would typically perform without assistance if the individual did not have a disability;
(ii) Designed to increase the individual’s control in life and ability to perform everyday activities on or off the job;
(iii) Necessary to the achievement of an employment outcome; and
(iv) Provided only while the individual is receiving other vocational rehabilitation services. The services may include training in managing, supervising, and directing personal assistance services.

Technical Assistance Services Including Self-Employment

Technical assistance includes consultation and other services provided to conduct market analyses, to develop business plans, and to provide resources to individuals in the pursuit of self-employment, telecommuting and small business operation outcomes.

Reader Services

Reader services are for individuals who cannot read print because of blindness or other disabilities. Reader services include, in addition to reading aloud, transcription of printed information into Braille or sound recordings if the individual requests such transcription. Reader services are generally for individuals who are blind or deaf-blind, but may also include individuals unable to read because of serious neurological disorders, specific learning disabilities, or other physical or mental impairments.

Interpreter Services

Interpreter services are sign language or oral interpretation services for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing and tactile interpretation services for individuals who are deaf-blind. Specially trained individuals perform sign language or oral interpretation.
Interpreter services also include real-time captioning services for persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. Do not include language interpretation in this category, but in Other Services (

Other Services

Use this category ONLY for other VR services that cannot be recorded elsewhere. Include in this category such services as the provision of funds for occupational licenses, tools and equipment, initial stocks and supplies.